Social Movements In India Msa Rao Pdf Download
Social Movements in India MSA Rao PDF Download
Social movements are collective actions that aim to bring about or resist social change. They are often driven by the grievances, aspirations, and identities of marginalized groups in society. Social movements in India have a long and rich history, spanning from the colonial era to the present day. They have played a significant role in shaping the political, economic, and cultural landscape of the country.
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One of the most influential scholars of social movements in India was M. S. A. Rao (1926-1985), a professor of sociology at the University of Delhi. He wrote and edited extensively on subjects such as the social aspects of nutrition, urban and rural sociology, the sociology of migration, and social dominance. He also conducted much fieldwork as a part of his researches. He is best known for his book Social Movements and Social Transformation: A Study of Two Backward Classes Movements in India, published in 1979.
Social Movements and Social Transformation: A Study of Two Backward Classes Movements in India
In this book, Rao analyzes two social movements that emerged among the backward classes (or lower castes) in India: the Justice Party movement in Tamil Nadu and the Mahad Satyagraha movement in Maharashtra. He examines the historical, sociological, and political factors that led to the formation, development, and outcomes of these movements. He also compares and contrasts them with other backward classes movements in India and abroad.
Rao argues that these movements were not merely expressions of economic deprivation or political mobilization, but also manifestations of cultural identity and social dignity. He shows how these movements challenged the dominant caste hierarchy and sought to create alternative modes of social organization and representation. He also explores how these movements influenced the broader processes of social change and transformation in India.
The Justice Party Movement in Tamil Nadu
The Justice Party movement was a political movement that emerged among the non-Brahmin castes in Tamil Nadu (then Madras Presidency) in the early 20th century. It was founded by T. M. Nair, P. Theagaraya Chetty, C. Natesa Mudaliar, and others in 1916 as a response to the Brahmin domination of politics, education, and administration in the province. The Justice Party advocated for proportional representation, communal reservation, and self-respect for the non-Brahmin castes. It also promoted social reforms such as inter-caste marriage, widow remarriage, and women's education.
The Justice Party formed the first non-Congress government in Madras Presidency in 1920 and remained in power until 1937. It implemented various policies to uplift the backward classes, such as reservation of seats in legislatures, educational institutions, and public services; abolition of untouchability; establishment of temples for non-Brahmins; and encouragement of Tamil language and literature. The Justice Party also faced criticism from its opponents, such as the Congress, the Self-Respect Movement, and the Dravidian Movement, for its alleged corruption, factionalism, elitism, and lack of mass support.
The Mahad Satyagraha Movement in Maharashtra
The Mahad Satyagraha movement was a social movement that emerged among the Dalits (or untouchables) in Maharashtra (then Bombay Presidency) in the mid-20th century. It was led by B. R. Ambedkar, a prominent Dalit leader, lawyer, scholar, and activist. The Mahad Satyagraha movement aimed to assert the Dalits' right to access public water sources that were denied to them by the upper castes on the grounds of pollution.
The Mahad Satyagraha movement began with a conference held by Ambedkar at Mahad town in 1927, where he declared that drinking water from the Chavdar tank was a human right for all citizens regardless of caste. He then led thousands of Dalits to drink water from the tank as a symbolic act of protest against caste discrimination. This provoked violent reactions from the upper castes, who attacked the Dalits and polluted the tank with cow dung and urine. Ambedkar then launched a legal battle to secure the Dalits' right to access public water sources.
The Mahad Satyagraha movement inspired many other Dalit movements across India that challenged caste oppression and asserted their human dignity. It also influenced Ambedkar's later campaigns for political representation, constitutional rights, and religious conversion for the Dalits.
Social Movements and Social Transformation: A Study of Two Backward Classes Movements in India is a seminal work by M. S. A. Rao that offers a comprehensive and comparative analysis of two important social movements in India. It provides valuable insights into the dynamics, strategies, and impacts of these movements on the Indian society. It also contributes to the broader understanding of social movements and social change in general.
If you are interested in reading this book, you can download a PDF version from the Internet Archive. You can also find more information about the author and his works from Wikipedia and Open Library.